Using the ASME VIII-1 Nozzle F Factor (UG-37)
File: PVE-3783 Jan. 24, 2013, LRB
The stresses around a nozzle located in a cylindrical shell are not the same in all directions. If a non-round nozzle is oriented in the correct direction, ASME allows us to take advantage of this.
This is a FEA plot of a pressure vessel with two identical elliptical nozzles, but oriented in different directions. ASME says that the two nozzles have different stresses around them, as the FEA results confirm. A cylindrical shell circ stress is 2x the longitudinal stress. The nozzle that cuts more material in the long direction has higher stresses.
- The default F factor is 1.0 – this effect can be ignored if desired.
- F Factor can reduce the required amount of area replacement to 1/2 in certain directions – this allows less conservative nozzle designs if the non-round nozzle is oriented favorably.
- F Factors other than 1.0 can only be used for integral (full penetration welded, no re-pad) nozzles.
- The nozzle will need to be calculated twice – once in the longitudinal direction at F = 1.0 and once in the circ direction at F=0.5. Different d values will be used for the different directions.
An example follows:
F = correction factor that compensates for the variation in internal pressure stresses on different planes with respect to the axis of a vessel. A value of 1.00 shall be used for all configurations except that Figure UG-37 may be used for integrally reinforced openings in cylindrical shells and cones. [See UW-16(c)(1).]
ASME figure UG-37. At angle of 0 degrees, the maximum circ stress exists, F = 1.0. At angle 90 degrees, the maximum longitudinal stress exist, which is half the circ stress. F = 0.5
Companion Sample Problem and Calculation Set
The enclosed example shows an elliptical manway nozzle that takes advantage of the F factor to get a higher pressure rating than otherwise possible.